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  Offer in Compromise
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The IRS Can Make Offers in Compromise

IRC Section 7122 authorizes the Internal Revenue Service to compromise any civil or criminal case arising under the internal revenue laws unless it has been referred to the Department of Justice for prosecution or defense. The Internal Revenue Service may compromise any tax controversy when there is doubt as to tax liability or collectibility. Compromise results in taxpayer paying less than asserted liability and closes taxpayer's entire tax liability for covered period. A compromise may be set aside in limited circumstances.

What is an Offer in Compromise

A compromise is a particular type of settlement of a tax controversy. Compromises usually take place at the collection stage. They are agreements between the Internal Revenue Service and a taxpayer allowing the taxpayer to pay the government less in taxes than the asserted tax liability. Compromises are governed by the rules applicable to contracts.

Grounds for an Offer in Compromise

The Internal Revenue Service has complete discretion whether to enter into a compromise, and will entertain an offer in compromise only if it is based on one or both of the following grounds:
  1. doubt as to the taxpayer's liability for the tax
  2. doubt as to the collectibility of the tax. .
Most compromises allow a taxpayer to pay the government less in taxes than owed, and are based on the taxpayer's inability to pay the admitted tax liability (including penalties and interest).

Covers All Tax Matters

A compromise is generally not limited to one issue or transaction. Rather, a compromise is deemed to close the taxpayer's entire tax liability for the period covered, including liability for taxes, penalties, and interest. Thus, compromise as to part of a tax liability (a penalty, for example) may have the result of foreclosing the right to dispute other parts of the tax liability.

Procedure for an Offer in Compromise

An offer to enter into a compromise agreement is called an Offer in Compromise. Offers generally are made by the taxpayer and must be made on Form 656. In addition to the form, a written position statement is usually included to bolster the taxpayer's arguments. As part of the offer in compromise, taxpayers are required to waive the benefit of the statute of limitations on assessment or collection of the tax, thereby affording the Internal Revenue Service time to review the offer. This gives the IRS more time to collect the taxes if the Offer is rejected. Remittance of the amount offered in the proposed compromise, or a deposit if the offer is to pay in installments, must also accompany the offer.

Form 433A/433B - For offers based on inability to pay, taxpayers must submit a statement of financial condition (Form 433A - individuals or Form 433B - businesses) to enable the Internal Revenue Service to analyze the taxpayer's ability to pay. The Internal Revenue Service will require that the amount offered reflect the maximum amount collectible from the taxpayer's current income and assets, and may also require, as additional consideration for entering the agreement, that the taxpayer execute one or more collateral agreements to secure additional payment from his future income or to provide that the taxpayer forgo certain other tax benefits.

Enforceability of a Compromise

After an offer is accepted by the Internal Revenue Service official who has been delegated the authority to do so, the agreement is binding and is enforceable as a contract, according to its terms. Neither party may reopen a compromised case. The only grounds upon which a compromise can be set aside are:
  1. mutual mistake of fact as to the agreement
  2. falsification or concealment of assets by the taxpayer
  3. grounds sufficient to set aside a contract generally.
A requirement of an accepted compromise is that the taxpayer timely file and timely pay all required tax returns for a period of 5 years. If the taxpayer files late or pays late, the IRS can void the compromise agreement. Ronald J. Cappuccio, J.D., LL.M.(Tax) 1800 Chapel Avenue West Suite 128 Cherry Hill, NJ 08002 Phone:(856) 665-2121    (856) 866-8686  Fax: (856) 665-9005 Email:

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